Simulating TinyOS Applications in TOSSIM
Last updated 25 August
TOSSIM, the TinyOS simulator, compiles directly from TinyOS code. Built with
make pc, the simulation runs natively on a desktop or laptop. TOSSIM
can simulate thousands of nodes simultaneously. Every mote in a simulation runs
the same TinyOS program.
TOSSIM provides run-time configurable debugging output, allowing a user to
examine the execution of an application from different perspectives without
needing to recompile. TinyViz is a Java-based GUI that allows you to visualize
and control the simulation as it runs, inspecting debug messages, radio and UART
packets, and so forth. The simulation provides several mechanisms for
interacting with the network; packet traffic can be monitored, packets can be
statically or dynamically injected into the network. In this lesson, we won't be
dealing with packet injection, which is discussed in Lesson 7 .
|Building and Running an
TOSSIM is compiled by typing make pc in an application directory. In
addition to the expected TinyOS components, a few simulator-specific files are
compiled; these files provide functionality such as support for network
monitoring over TCP sockets.
Enter the apps/CntToLedsAndRfm directory. This
application runs a 4Hz counter. It assumes a Mica mote which has 3 LEDs. On each
counter tick, the application displays the least significant three bits of the
counter on the three mote LEDs and sends the entire 16-bit value in a packet.
Build and install the application on a Mica mote as in Lesson 4. You should see
the LEDs blink.
Build a TOSSIM version of the application with make pc. The TOSSIM
executable is build/pc/main.exe. Type build/pc/main.exe --help
to see a brief summary of its command-line usage. TOSSIM has a single required
parameter, the number of nodes to simulate. Type build/pc/main.exe 1 to
run a simulation of a single node. You should see a long stream of output fly
by, most of which refer to radio bit events. Hit control-C to stop the
By default, TOSSIM prints out all debugging information. As radio bit events
are fired at 20 or 40 KHz, these are the most frequent events in the simulator,
they comprise most of the output in CntToLedsAndRfm. Given the application,
we're more concerned with the packet output and mote LEDs than individual radio
bits. TOSSIM output can be configured by setting the DBG environment
variable in a shell. Type export DBG=am,led in your shell; this makes
only LED and AM (active messages) packet output enabled. Run the one-mote
simulation again. You should see output similar to this:
0: LEDS: Yellow off.
0: LEDS: Green off.
0: LEDS: Red off.
0: Sending message: ffff, 4
ff ff 04 7d 08 20 00 00 00 00 00 00 00 00 00 00 00 00 00 00 00 00
00 00 00 00 00 00 00 00 00 00 00 00 3b f3 00 00 01 00 00 00
0: LEDS: Yellow off.
0: LEDS: Green off.
0: LEDS: Red on.
0: Sending message: ffff, 4
ff ff 04 7d 08 21 00 00 00 00 00 00 00 00 00 00 00 00 00 00 00 00
00 00 00 00 00 00 00 00 00 00 00 00 ac e6 00 00 01 00 00 00
The sixth byte of the packet contains the least significant byte of the two
byte counter; in this example the first packet is hex 0x20 (32), in the second,
it's hex 0x21 (33). As the LEDs show the bottom three bits of the counter, they
are all off for the first packet and bit one is on for the second.
Almost every message is preceded by a 0:; this means that the
message pertains to the execution of mote 0. Run a simulation of two motes
(build/pc/main.exe 2); after it runs for a few seconds, stop the
simulation with control-C. You should see messages for both mote 0 and mote 1.
Set DBG to crc. Run two mote simulation of
CntToLedsAndRfm. You should see output indicating that both nodes are
successfully receiving packets from each-other.
The full set of DBG modes can be seen by typing build/pc/main.exe
--help; they are listed at the bottom of the output.
Four DBG modes are reserved for application components and debugging use:
usr1, usr2, usr3, and temp. In TinyOS code,
debug message commands have this syntax:
dbg(<mode>, const char* format, ...);
The mode parameter specifies which under which DBG modes this message will be
printed. The full set of modes can be found in tos/types/dbg_modes.h. The format
and following parameters specify the string to output and have printf()
semantics. For example, open tos/lib/Counters/Counter.ncin
your editor. In Timer.fired(), add this line just before the return
dbg(DBG_TEMP, "Counter: Value is %i\n", (int)state);
Set DBG to be temp and run a single mote simulation. You'll
see the counter increment. In general, the DBG mode name in TinyOS code is the
name used when you run the simulator, with DBG_prepended. For example,
am is DBG_AM, packet is DBG_PACKET and
boot is DBG_BOOT.
Just as you can enable multiple modes when running the simulator, a single
debug message can be activated on multiple modes. Each mode is a bit in a large
bitmask; one can use all of the standard logical operators (e.g. |,
~) . For example, change the debug message you just added to:
dbg(DBG_TEMP|DBG_USR1, "Counter: Value is %i\n", (int)state);
It will now be printed if either temp or usr1 is enabled.
Run the application to see this is the case.
One significant advantage of TOSSIM is that, because it runs natively on a
PC, you can use traditional debugging tools such as gdb. However,
because TOSSIM is a discrete event simulation for large numbers of motes,
traditional step-through debugging techniques only work on an event basis, and
Unfortunately, gdb is generally designed for C and not nesC; the
component model of nesC means that a single command can have multiple providers;
referring to a specific command requires specifying the component, interface,
and command. For example, to break on entry to the redOff command of
the Leds interface of LedsC, one must type:
gdb build/pc/main.exe // start gdb
(gdb) break *LedsC$Leds$redOff
Breakpoint 1 at 0x804c644: file tos/system/LedsC.td, line 97.
run 1 // run CntToLedsAndRfm with one mote
The leading * is necessary so gdb can parse the function name
correctly; otherwise, it looks for the function LedsC.
Variables are similarly named. For example, to print the ledsOn
variable of LedsC (which keeps track of on/off for the toggle
commands), one types:
(gdb) print LedsC$ledsOn
$3 = '\0' <repeats 999 times>
Actually, this isn't quite correct, as the output above shows; in TOSSIM,
ledsOn isn't a single uint8_t, but an array of 1000 of them.
This is how TOSSIM handles the state of many motes; it compiles fields to be
arrays of n elements, where n is the maximum simulation size.
Whenever a mote accesses a component's state, it indexes into the array based on
its node ID. Therefore, to refer to a specific mote's state, one needs to index
into the array properly:
(gdb) print LedsC$ledsOn[tos_state.current_node]
$2 = 0 '\0'
We've supplied a simple gdb macro named VAR that handles
this for you. Copy tos/platform/pc/.gdbinit to your
home directory (if there's already a .gdbinit there, just append this
file). Type quit and start gdb it again. Break in
LedsC$Leds$redOff as before. Now, instead of the above command line,
you can type:
(gdb) VAR LedsC$ledsOn
$3 = 0 '\0'
|TinyViz: The TOSSIM User
TinyViz provides an extensible graphical user interface for debugging,
visualizing, and interacting with TOSSIM simulations of TinyOS applications.
Using TinyViz, you can easily trace the execution of TinyOS apps, set
breakpoints when interesting events occur, visualize radio messages, and
manipulate the virtual position and radio connectivity of motes. In addition,
TinyViz supports a simple "plugin" API that allows you to write your own TinyViz
modules to visualize data in an application-specific way, or interact with the
To get started, look at the apps/TestTinyViz
application, which causes motes to periodically send a message to a random
neighbor. There isn't anything interesting about the application itself, but it
will allow us to demonstrate the basic features of TinyViz. Go ahead and build
the app with make pc.
To compile TinyViz, cd to the tools/java/net/tinyos/sim
directory and type make. This will build the TinyOS program as
tinyviz.jar, a stand-alone Java JAR file that you can run with the
tinyviz script, found in this directory. Place this script on your PATH
and you will be able to run tinyviz directly from the command line.
Start up TinyViz, running the TestTinyViz app, as follows:
tinyviz -run build/pc/main.exe 30
You will see a window looking something like the following:
On the left is the graphical display of the sensor network. On the right is
the control panel where you can interact with a series of plugins that
control how TinyViz works.
In the mote window, you can select motes by clicking on them, or select a
group of motes by dragging a rectangle around the group. You can move motes
around by dragging them around. Selecting motes is meaningful for certain
plugins, and other operations, such as toggling the power state of the motes.
The "pause/play" button pauses or resumes the simulation. The "grid button"
toggles grid-lines on the display. The "clear" button clears out the display
state. The "stop" button kills the simulation. The "delay" slider introduces a
delay between the handling of each TOSSIM event, which will slow down the
display -- useful in cases where you have a small number of motes and want to
watch the simulation operating in "real time". The "On/off" button toggles the
power state of the selected motes.
A TinyViz plugin is a software module that watches for events coming
from the simulation -- such as debug messages, radio messages, and so forth --
and reacts by drawing information on the display, setting simulation parameters,
or actuating the simulation itself, for example, by setting the sensor values
that simulated motes will read. TinyViz comes with a suite of built-in plugins,
in the tools/java/net/tinyos/sim/plugins
directory, and you can write your own. Not all plugins are used for all
applications -- for example, the Calamari plugin is used mainly for
testing the Calamari localization service -- but many of them are generally
Plugins can be selectively enabled or disabled, depending on what information
you are interested in seeing during the simulation. You select plugins from the
Plugins menu. When a plugin is enabled, its corresponding tab in the
right-hand control panel window is active, which may have additional information
and controls provided by that plugin. Plugins are designed to be independent of
each other so you can enable or disable any group of plugins you like.
The main plugins you are likely to use are:
- Debug messages: Shows a window with all of the debug messages
generated by the simulation. You can select debug messages just from the
selected group of motes, and also highlight messages that match a certain
pattern. Note that the set of debug messages you see are controlled by the value
of the DBG environment variable, just as they are when running TOSSIM
in a stand-alone setting. So, if you only want to see debug messages of type
DBG_USR1 and DBG_AM, start up TinyViz with:
DBG=usr1,am tinyviz -run build/pc/main.exe 30
- Set breakpoint: Allows you to set a breakpoint, which will pause the
simulation when some condition is met. Right now, the possible conditions are
(a) a substring match on a debug message, or (b) a match on the contents of a
sent radio message. Multiple breakpoints can be set and they can be enabled or
disabled by selecting them in the breakpoints list.
- ADC readings: Shows the most recent value of each ADC channel next to
- Sent radio packets: Shows a window with all sent radio packets, much
like the Debug messages plugin. Note that the Debug messages
plugin also shows this information.
- Radio links: Graphically displays radio message activity. When a mote
broadcasts a message, a blue circle will be drawn around it. When a mote sends a
message to another mote, a directed arrow will be drawn between the two motes.
Note that this shows all message transmissions, regardless of whether they are
successful; if a mote attempts to send a message but it is corrupted or lost,
the arrow will still be drawn.
- Set location: Makes the virtual location of each mote available to
that mote through the Location interface, found in apps/TestTinyViz/Location.nc.
This is accomplished by setting the value of three "fake" ADC channels (one each
for X, Y, and Z coordinates) on each mote, which the FakeLocation
component reads to determine the mote's virtual location. This is meant to act
as a stand-in for a real localization service when simulating TinyOS apps.
- Radio model: Sets the bit error rate between motes according to their
location and various models of radio connectivity. Enabling this plugin allows
you to use realistic connectivity models in your simulations. There are two
built-in models: "Empirical" (based on an outdoor trace of packet connectivity
with the RFM1000 radios) and "Fixed radius" (all motes within a given fixed
distance of each other have perfect connectivity, and no connectivity to other
motes). Setting the "scaling factor" in the control panel simply scales the
distance parameter of the model. Increasing the scaling factor will
decrease the connectivity range of the chosen model. By selecting a mote
in the display you can see its connectivity to other motes -- the number shown
next to each edge is the probability of a packet getting through. Changing the
scaling factor and clicking "update model" will update the model parameters, as
will moving motes around in the display.
Layout of the motes is controlled by the Layout menu, which gives
you several options including random, grid-based, or a "grid+random" (grid-based
but with a random perturbation) layout. You can also save and load layouts from
a file. The location of the motes on the display is used in two ways. First, it
is used to determine radio connectivity, when the RadioModelPlugin is
enabled. Second, it is used to set the virtual location of the motes, when using
Trying it out
OK, now we're ready to try out the various features.
- Scripting TOSSIM runs
- Startup TinyViz with DBG=usr1, tinyviz -run build/pc/main.exe 30 if
it is not already running.
- Select the Debug messages, Radio links, and Set
breakpoint plugins from the Plugins menu, and resume the simulation by
clicking the pause/play button.
- Clicking on the Debug messages tab in the control panel will show you
all of the debug messages generated by the simulation. Click on a given mote
(say, mote 3) then click "Selected motes only" to restrict the display to just
- Type a phrase (for example, "Received") in the box at the bottom of the
control panel, then click "Highlight". This will highlight all messages matching
the chosen string - very useful for visually scanning for "interesting"
- Pause the simulation, then click on the "Set breakpoint" tab. Pull down the
bar at the top of the control panel (which says "Current breakpoints") and
choose "Add debug message breakpoint". In the "Message contains" box, type
"Received message", then click "Enable breakpoint". This will add a new
breakpoint that pauses the simulation whenever a matching debug message is
printed. Click on the pause/play button to resume the simulation. Very soon
afterwards, the simulation will pause and the control panel at the bottom of the
screen will print something like
Breakpoint 0 fired: Debug message:  DebugMsgEvent [24: TestTinyVizM: Received message from 13]which
simply means that this debug message triggered the breakpoint. Clicking the play
button again will resume the simulation, causing the breakpoint to be hit again.
- Select "Current breakpoints" from the bar at the top of the control panel.
Disable the breakpoint by clicking on it in the breakpoints list, then click
- Select the Radio model plugin from the Plugins menu and click on the
"Radio model" tab in the control panel, then pick "Fixed radius (100.0)" from
the list of radio models. Drag the mouse across the mote display to select all
motes; you will see a very densely-connected mesh, indicating that nearly every
mote has connectivity with all others, due to the large radius of the radio
model. Type "4" in the "Distance scaling factor" box, then click "Update model".
The radio model will be updated -- which may take some time -- and the resulting
connectivity mesh will be much more sparse.
Note that once you restart the simulation, nodes that can no longer
communicate (due to no connectivity) will still be sending messages to each
other; this is because the TestTinyViz application accumulates a list
of nodes to send messages to, but changing the underlying connectivity model
does not modify this list. However, if you watch the debug messages from
each node, you will notice that nodes are only receiving messages from
those nodes they are connected to, as you would expect.
The TinyViz AutoRun feature allows you to "script" the configuration
and execution of a TinyOS simulation, by setting parameters in a file that
controls TinyViz. This allows you to automatically enable plugins, set
breakpoints, run multiple simulations, log data to files, and execute commands
both before and after each simulation runs. This is useful when you are using
TinyViz as an analysis tool.
Look at the file apps/TestTinyViz/sample.autorun
in the TestTinyViz directory. The autorun file specifies one or more
simulations to run; a simulation stops either when a specified number of
simulated seconds have elapsed (the "numsec" option), when a substring
match on a debug message occurs (the "stopstring" option), or when the
simulation exits itself (e.g., a crash or deliberate call to exit()).
The parameters for each simulation are separated by a blank line. When a
parameter is set in the file for one simulation, it will carry forward for
subsequent simulations in the file, saving you from having to re-specify
parameters for each run.
Here is the sample file:
# This is a sample TinyViz autorun file. To use it, run
# tinyviz -autorun sample.autorun
# Set the layout
# Enable some plugins
# Total number of simulated seconds to run
# Name of the executable file
# DBG messages to include
# The radio model and scaling factor to use
# Number of motes
# Command to run before starting
precmd echo "This is a command that will run before the simulation"
# File to log all DBG messages to
# The blank line above indicates that we are starting another simulation
# This time run with a different number of motes
The AutoRun file specifies two simulations, one with 20 motes and another
with 30. All debug messages are logged to two different logfiles. We enable a
few different plugins (specified by the Java class names as they are found in
To run the simulations with this autorun file, just type:
tinyviz -autorun sample.autorun
TinyViz starts up, enables and configures the appropriate plugins, and
automatically runs each simulation for 10 simulated seconds, then exits. You can
set up AutoRun to run a series of simulations and then go to lunch -- the data
will be waiting for you in your logfiles when you get back.
AutoRun supports a number of features not shown here -- just look at the
arConfig class in the tools/java/net/tinyos/sim/AutoRun.javasource
file. Note that all options specified in the file that aren't used by AutoRun
itself, however they made available to plugins. So, for example, the
radiomodel option is interpreted by the RadioModelPlugin to
configure the radio model. You can write your own plugins that are configured
through AutoRun in this way.
Writing TinyViz plugins
By far the most useful feature of TinyViz is the ability to write your own
plugins to interact with the simulation. Writing plugins is beyond the scope of
this document, but we wanted to give you a couple of pointers on where to start.
Look at tools/java/net/tinyos/sim/plugins/RadioLinkPlugin.javafor
a simple, well-documented plugin implementation. Essentially, plugins must
provide a method that receives events from the TOSSIM simulation and the TinyViz
framework. Plugins react to events by changing internal state, updating the
display, or possibly sending commands back into the simulation. TinyViz delivers
events to plugins for initialization, debug messages, radio messages, a change
in the location of a mote (e.g., when the user moves it), and when new motes
join the simulation. Plugins provide additional methods that are called when the
plugin is enabled or disabled, as well as when the mote window is redrawn.
Using RadioLinkPlugin.java as an example, it is straightforward to
write your own plugins. Currently, all plugins must be located in the
plugins subdirectory of the TinyViz directory. (In the future we will
add support for a "plugin path"). Note that when you modify a plugin you need to
recompile the tinyviz.jar file by typing make in the main
TinyViz directory (tools/java/net/tinyos/sim); just typing make in the
plugins directory is not adequate.
This tutorial only covers some of the functionality and usefulness of TOSSIM;
for example, as TOSSIM simulates the TinyOS networking stack at bit granularity,
radio models can simulate some of the difficult issues that arise. Similarly,
one can test and debug low-level protocols (such as start symbol detection) in
addition to application components and routing protocols. The TOSSIM System Description goes into greater details on
these capabilities and presents some information on TOSSIM's implementation.
posted on 2005-11-28 01:11 井冈山
阅读(1861) 评论(1) 编辑 收藏 引用